Objective: This study aims to determine the relationship between the salinity of drinking water and the formation of urinary stones (urolithiasis) in people who drink it and the effect of water quality on the formation of uroliths. Compared with neighboring areas, the prevalence of urinary stones in the Aga area selected of southern Dakahlia Governorate is significantly higher. Materials and methods: A total of 87 volunteers were recruited between April 2019 and April 2020. Drinking water samples were taken from water sources used by clinically identified patients with urinary calculi and healthy people. The concentrations of major and minor ions in the water samples were determined using other hydrochemical parameters. A system for statistical analysis of water quality data was established to illustrate significant differences in the chemical constituents of the samples at p < 0.050. Results: The water quality parameters in the patients’ regions increased as the total dissolved salts (TDS) increased. The anions in the area were in the order of HCO3-˃ Cl-˃ SO42-, whereas the cations were in the order of Ca2+ ˃ Na+ ˃ Mg2+ ˃ K+. The results of the study show that the quality of deep groundwater is higher than that of shallow water. Conclusions: The results suggest a significant risk of urolithiasis among the residents of the Aga district. In order to minimize the threat to human well-being, public authorities should take immediate action to provide residents with clean drinking water.