Assessment of a multimodal analgesia protocol in goats undergoing claw amputation

Document Type : Original Articles


1 Veterinarin, Veterinary Sector, Dakahlia, Egypt

2 Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura, Egypt


Objective: To evaluate the anti-nociceptive, sedative and behavioral effect of multimodal analgesic drugs in goat's undergoing unilateral claw amputation. Design: A randomized experimental design. Animals: Sixteen goats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (4 each). Procedures: Animals used in this study were randomly assigned into 4 groups, four animals for each group. All goats were anaesthetized by intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) of the right forelimb cephalic vein with 2% lidocaine in a dose of 3mg/kg body weight (BW) before surgery. Administration of carprofen (50 mg/ml) at a dose 0.1 mg/kg BW took place before surgery on day 0 and was then repeated once daily for another 3 consecutive days postoperatively in groups Lidocaine (L), carprofen_lidocaine (CL), carprofen – romifidine - lidocaine (CRL), and carprofen – romifidine - butorphenol - lidocaine (CRBL). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), serum IL-6 level, sedation score, and lameness score were determined at preset time intervals and the animals’ behavior was recorded. Results: The mean average of HR, RR and RT in IVRA treated animals was significantly increased until the end of surgery followed by gradual decrease up to 90 min post-surgery. In CRL and CRBL it showed a significant decrease compared to controls. There was a significant decrease in lameness score in CRL and CRBL treated animals from 30 min until 2 hours and for 3 days post-surgery. After injection of romifidine it showed a significant decrease of IL-6 levels compared to lidocaine and CL treated animals. Conclusion and clinical relevance: It was concluded that, the use of romifidine and buterphanol in the analgesic protocol during claw amputation in goats, alleviate pain response and potentiate the analgesic effects of IVRA. Addition of carprofen to the analgesic protocol can be used for long- term treatment of orthopedic pain in goats without complications.


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